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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-07-13 19:41:11 UTC
Update Date2016-07-20 20:54:51 UTC
LmdbLMDB00046
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlycolic acid
DescriptionGlycolic acid, also known as 2-hydroxyacetate or glycolate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon. Glycolic acid is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). Glycolic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. In humans, glycolic acid is involved in rosiglitazone metabolism pathway. Outside of the human body, Glycolic acid has been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as sourdocks, pineappple sages, celeriacs, cloves, and feijoa. This could make glycolic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Once applied, glycolic acid reacts with the upper layer of the epidermis, weakening the binding properties of the lipids that hold the dead skin cells together. Glycolic acid is a potentially toxic compound. Glycolic acid, with regard to humans, has been found to be associated with several diseases such as transurethral resection of the prostate and biliary atresia; glycolic acid has also been linked to several inborn metabolic disorders including glutaric acidemia type 2, glycolic aciduria, and d-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Glycolic and oxalic acid, along with excess lactic acid, are responsible for the anion gap metabolic acidosis.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Hydroxyacetic acidChEBI
2-Hydroxyethanoic acidChEBI
alpha-Hydroxyacetic acidChEBI
Glycollic acidChEBI
HOCH2COOHChEBI
Hydroxyacetic acidChEBI
Hydroxyethanoic acidChEBI
2-HydroxyacetateGenerator
2-HydroxyethanoateGenerator
a-HydroxyacetateGenerator
a-Hydroxyacetic acidGenerator
alpha-HydroxyacetateGenerator
Α-hydroxyacetateGenerator
Α-hydroxyacetic acidGenerator
GlycollateGenerator
HydroxyacetateGenerator
HydroxyethanoateGenerator
GlycolateGenerator
GlycocideHMDB
GlyPureHMDB
GlyPure 70HMDB
Sodium glycolateHMDB
Glycolic acid, 2-(14)C-labeledHMDB
Glycolic acid, 1-(14)C-labeledHMDB
Glycolic acid, potassium saltHMDB
Glycolic acid, monopotassium saltHMDB
Glycolic acid, calcium saltHMDB
Glycolic acid, monoammonium saltHMDB
Glycolic acid, monolithium saltHMDB
Glycolic acid, monosodium saltHMDB
Potassium glycolateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC2H4O3
Average Molecular Weight76.0514
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight76.016043994
IUPAC Name2-hydroxyacetic acid
Traditional Nameglycolic acid
CAS Registry Number79-14-1
SMILES
OCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H4O3/c3-1-2(4)5/h3H,1H2,(H,4,5)
InChI KeyAEMRFAOFKBGASW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassHydroxy acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAlpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected but not Quantified
OriginNot Available
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1ALOGPS
logP-1ChemAxon
logS0.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity14.35 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability6.2 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-ed8b8e4a9e2556ea02e2Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00dj-9600000000-8bafc88c7bf4e90fb5e8Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-003r-2910000000-bd50bf5bab6f5327eaf4Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-9000000000-cadf899be6b15d008330Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-9000000000-e66ed28d8419895e0fb4Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-7f84fac3284d17fa3ba6Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-ed8b8e4a9e2556ea02e2Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-9600000000-8bafc88c7bf4e90fb5e8Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-003r-2910000000-bd50bf5bab6f5327eaf4Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-d724c85a3b30e3c2e4bcSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a7l-9000000000-1e9466549305eb20257bSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05i9-9520000000-5f0019fe63eb6e692109Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_2_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-004i-9000000000-e942bdae1d60e5f5d649Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-f225de2de3540c3f50a4Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-7de217d97b44f53aad82Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-88af2b259f82cd1d8938Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-c968a24f0640b154325bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0059-9000000000-1dfacf30bf94ce3bf8bbSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-88af2b259f82cd1d8938Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-c968a24f0640b154325bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0059-9000000000-1dfacf30bf94ce3bf8bbSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 1V, positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-fa715ee3ce9abbc94edbSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 2V, positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-ace3c5f526d28fd24de9Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 3V, positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-ff7f922c2460adb6a10dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 4V, positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-1d63aaaf9cbc6d3bb3b4Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 5V, positivesplash10-004j-9000000000-e9c74e7df728e016450cSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 6V, positivesplash10-002b-9000000000-d0963403f3a8ff9e576dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 7V, positivesplash10-002b-9000000000-9e1d6b2e2b889232d610Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 8V, positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-e9824f68b2176db90d33Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 9V, positivesplash10-000t-9000000000-02329982bc7150d972bfSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 10V, positivesplash10-000t-9000000000-216d8ece56b0a44e5289Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-d961c3c14ec415e3141eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-67f73be970ba9f885c4aSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-f2ccf0b88e0ad65ed4c6Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-7445713a5fe347bbc8b8Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-26e13242443efc1aa846Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-6ba976b949118cd0a86aSpectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-2885890e3bb8c015742fSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations and Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Plasma
  • Ruminal Fluid
Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueConditionSpeciesReferenceDetails
KidneyDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
Ruminal FluidDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
DrugBank IDDB03085
HMDB IDHMDB0000115
FooDB IDFDB003298
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00007461
BiGG ID34090
BioCyc IDGLYCOLLATE
METLIN ID3219
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlycolic_acid
Chemspider ID737
ChEBI ID17497
PubChem Compound ID757
Kegg Compound IDC03547
YMDB IDYMDB00807
ECMDB IDECMDB03035
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available