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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-07-13 19:41:31 UTC
Update Date2016-07-20 20:49:23 UTC
LmdbLMDB00061
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameD-Galactose
DescriptionD-Galactose is an aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. D-Galactose is an energy-providing nutrient and also a necessary basic substrate for the biosynthesis of many macromolecules in the body. Metabolic pathways for D-Galactose are important not only for the provision of these pathways but also for the prevention of D-Galactose and D-Galactose metabolite accumulation. The main source of D-Galactose is lactose in the milk of mammals, but it can also be found in some fruits and vegetables. Utilization of D-Galactose in all living cells is initiated by the phosphorylation of the hexose by the enzyme galactokinase (E.C. 2.7.1.6) (GALK) to form D-Galactose-1-phosphate. In the presence of D-Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (E.C. 2.7.7.12) (GALT) D-Galactose-1-phosphate is exchanged with glucose-1-phosphate in UDP-glucose to form UDP-galactose. Glucose-1-phosphate will then enter the glycolytic pathway for energy production. Deficiency of the enzyme GALT in galactosemic patients leads to the accumulation of D-Galactose-1-phosphate. Classic galactosemia-a term that denotes the presence of D-Galactose in the blood is the rare inborn error of D-Galactose metabolism, diagnosed by the deficiency of the second enzyme of the D-Galactose assimilation pathway, GALT, which, in turn, is caused by mutations at the GALT gene. (PMID: 15256214 , 11020650 , 10408771 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
ALPHA D-GALACTOSEChEBI
alpha-D-GalChEBI
Gal-alphaChEBI
alpha-D-GalactoseKegg
a D-GALACTOSEGenerator
Α D-galactoseGenerator
a-D-GalGenerator
Α-D-galGenerator
Gal-aGenerator
Gal-αGenerator
a-D-GalactoseGenerator
Α-D-galactoseGenerator
(+)-GalactoseHMDB
5AbpHMDB
8AbpHMDB
alpha-D-GalactopyranoseHMDB
D-(+)-GalactoseHMDB
D-HexoseHMDB
GALHMDB
GalactoseHMDB
Galactose (NF)HMDB
GLAHMDB
GLCHMDB
HexoseHMDB
SHU 508 aMeSH, HMDB
SH-TA-508MeSH, HMDB
SHU 508MeSH, HMDB
LevovistMeSH, HMDB
SHU-508MeSH, HMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional Namegalactose
CAS Registry Number59-23-4
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3+,4+,5-,6+/m1/s1
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-PHYPRBDBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginNot Available
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e3Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d8Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8dSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de618Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775dfSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb2997839Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2aSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971baSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15baSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e3Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d8Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8dSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de618Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775dfSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb2997839Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2aSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971baSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15baSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0np0-9700000000-e8d638dc817e46b97d7bSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-6122690000-eaf6f7adf34ccd0c667bSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0f6t-0900000000-70d3989fddd34b894c77Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00ri-9700000000-d454170b4e3ed18ed2d9Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-007a-9300000000-81f5f12f84924a34e2c0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 10V, negativesplash10-059i-9100000000-33aacf4c62b17cfa394eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 20V, negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-79ea696263aaad168701Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 40V, negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-480461c1cdd9d138dce2Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-059i-9100000000-33aacf4c62b17cfa394eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-79ea696263aaad168701Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-480461c1cdd9d138dce2Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0900000000-b0bc47623e7b2ca31c02Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03ea-3900000000-648e1637af29cf2a3518Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0007-9200000000-9e6f46a1cbf52d6e347aSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-a4ec4f0b1e29e360a952Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01t9-6900000000-7b3ea9c64ecc8d4ac867Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9100000000-ec2bf4918640a0a36398Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-2448926b508622464fe7Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-056r-8900000000-4c073cb93b78120113e6Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-ece70093ab5d3c331ac4Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01qa-0900000000-04ceb34d441ff6a75763Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03dl-9400000000-a8f1ceab155611f949c1Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01ow-9000000000-358f68fc2b7a72c27546Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations and Tissue Locations
  • Jejunum
  • Meat
  • Milk
  • Plasma
  • Serum
Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueConditionSpeciesReferenceDetails
JejunumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
MeatDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
MilkDetected and Quantified1200-1760 uMNot AvailableBovine details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine
    • Kurt J. Boudonck,...
details
PlasmaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
PlasmaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB0000143
FooDB IDFDB021787
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00001119
BiGG IDNot Available
BioCyc IDALPHA-D-GALACTOSE
METLIN IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGalactose
Chemspider IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28061
PubChem Compound ID439357
Kegg Compound IDC00984
YMDB IDYMDB00072
ECMDB IDECMDB04012
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Lai K, Klapa MI: Alternative pathways of galactose assimilation: could inverse metabolic engineering provide an alternative to galactosemic patients? Metab Eng. 2004 Jul;6(3):239-44. [15256214 ]
  2. Liu G, Hale GE, Hughes CL: Galactose metabolism and ovarian toxicity. Reprod Toxicol. 2000 Sep-Oct;14(5):377-84. [11020650 ]
  3. Tyfield L, Reichardt J, Fridovich-Keil J, Croke DT, Elsas LJ 2nd, Strobl W, Kozak L, Coskun T, Novelli G, Okano Y, Zekanowski C, Shin Y, Boleda MD: Classical galactosemia and mutations at the galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) gene. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(6):417-30. [10408771 ]