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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-07-13 19:42:40 UTC
Update Date2016-07-19 23:09:42 UTC
LmdbLMDB00114
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameThyroxine
DescriptionThe thyronamines function via some unknown mechanism to inhibit neuronal activity; this plays an important role in the hibernation cycles of mammals. One effect of administering the thyronamines is a severe drop in body temperature. Iodide is actively absorbed from the bloodstream and concentrated in the thyroid follicles. (If there is a deficiency of dietary iodine, the thyroid enlarges in an attempt to trap more iodine, resulting in goitre.) Via a reaction with the enzyme thyroperoxidase, iodine is covalently bound to tyrosine residues in the thyroglobulin molecules, forming monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT). Linking two moieties of DIT produces thyroxine. Combining one particle of MIT and one particle of DIT produces triiodothyronine. Both T3 and T4 are used to treat thyroid hormone deficiency (hypothyroidism). They are both absorbed well by the gut, so can be given orally. Levothyroxine, the most commonly used synthetic thyroxine form, is a stereoisomer of physiological thyroxine, which is metabolized more slowly and hence usually only needs once-daily administration. Natural desiccated thyroid hormones, which are derived from pig thyroid glands, are a "natural" hypothyroid treatment containing 20% T3 and traces of T2, T1 and calcitonin. this plays an important role in the hibernation cycles of mammals. One effect of administering the thyronamines is a severe drop in body temperature. The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (monoiodotyrosine) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (diiodotyrosine) in the thyroglobulin. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form triiodothyronine which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism. The thyronamines function via some unknown mechanism to inhibit neuronal activity.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3,3',5,5'-Tetraiodo-L-thyronineChEBI
3,5,3',5'-TETRAIODO-L-thyronineChEBI
4-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodo-L-phenylalanineChEBI
L-T4ChEBI
LevothyroxinChEBI
LevothyroxineChEBI
LT4ChEBI
O-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl)-3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosineChEBI
T4ChEBI
L-ThyroxineKegg
O-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-diidophenyl)-3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosineKegg
3,5,3'5'-Tetraiodo-L-thyronineKegg
ForthyronKegg
(-)-ThyroxineHMDB
3,3',5,5''-tetraiodo-L-ThyronineHMDB
3,5,3',5'-TetraiodothyronineHMDB, MeSH
D-ThyroxineHMDB
DL-ThyroxinHMDB
HenningHMDB
L-3,5,3',5'-TetraiodothyronineHMDB, MeSH
L-ThyroxinHMDB
LaevothyroxinumHMDB
LevothroidHMDB, MeSH
Levothyroxine sodiumHMDB, MeSH
LevothyroxinumHMDB
LevoxylHMDB, MeSH
Prestwick_548HMDB
SynthroidHMDB, MeSH
TetraiodothyronineHMDB
TetrametHMDB
THXHMDB
ThyratabsHMDB
ThyraxHMDB, MeSH
ThyreoideumHMDB
ThyroxinHMDB, MeSH
ThyroxinalHMDB
Thyroxine I 125HMDB
Thyroxine iodineHMDB
Allphar brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
BerlthyroxMeSH, HMDB
Delalande, levothyroxinMeSH, HMDB
DexnonMeSH, HMDB
EferoxMeSH, HMDB
EltroxinMeSH, HMDB
Kern brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
L-ThyroxMeSH, HMDB
L-Thyroxin henningMeSH, HMDB
L-Thyroxin betaMeSH, HMDB
L-Thyroxine rocheMeSH, HMDB
Levothyroxin deladandeMeSH, HMDB
LévothyroxMeSH, HMDB
Merck lipha santé brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Nourypharma brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
OroxineMeSH, HMDB
Aventis brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
EuthyroxMeSH, HMDB
EutiroxMeSH, HMDB
Forest brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Genpharm brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
GlaxoSmithKline brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Goldshield brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
LThyroxin henningMeSH, HMDB
levo-TMeSH, HMDB
Sanofi synthelabo brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Sigma brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
SynthroxMeSH, HMDB
ThevierMeSH, HMDB
Watson brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Berlin chemie brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Delalande brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
EltroxineMeSH, HMDB
Hexal brand 2 OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
L Thyroxine rocheMeSH, HMDB
NovothyralMeSH, HMDB
TiroidineMeSH, HMDB
Vortex brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Abbot brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Berlin-chemie brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Byk brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Deladande, levothyroxinMeSH, HMDB
GlaxoWellcome brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Henning berlin brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Hexal brand 1 OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
L ThyroxMeSH, HMDB
L Thyroxin henningMeSH, HMDB
L Thyroxin betaMeSH, HMDB
L ThyroxineMeSH, HMDB
LThyroxin betaMeSH, HMDB
leo, TiroxinaMeSH, HMDB
levo TMeSH, HMDB
LevoTMeSH, HMDB
LevothyroidMeSH, HMDB
Levothyroxin delalandeMeSH, HMDB
LevoxineMeSH, HMDB
Merck brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Monarch brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Mova brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
NovothyroxMeSH, HMDB
O-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl) 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosineMeSH, HMDB
O-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenyl)-3,5-diiodotyrosineMeSH, HMDB
Roche brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Rudefsa brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Sodium levothyroxineMeSH, HMDB
T4 Thyroid hormoneMeSH, HMDB
Thyroid hormone, T4MeSH, HMDB
Tiroxina leoMeSH, HMDB
UnithroidMeSH, HMDB
Betapharm brand OF levothyroxine sodiumMeSH, HMDB
Chemical FormulaC15H11I4NO4
Average Molecular Weight776.87
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight776.686681525
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoic acid
Traditional Namelevothyroxine
CAS Registry Number51-48-9
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CC(I)=C(OC2=CC(I)=C(O)C(I)=C2)C(I)=C1)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C15H11I4NO4/c16-8-4-7(5-9(17)13(8)21)24-14-10(18)1-6(2-11(14)19)3-12(20)15(22)23/h1-2,4-5,12,21H,3,20H2,(H,22,23)/t12-/m0/s1
InChI KeyXUIIKFGFIJCVMT-LBPRGKRZSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylalanine and derivatives. Phenylalanine and derivatives are compounds containing phenylalanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of phenylalanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPhenylalanine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • Diphenylether
  • Diaryl ether
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • 2-halophenol
  • 2-iodophenol
  • Aralkylamine
  • Phenol
  • Halobenzene
  • Iodobenzene
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl iodide
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Ether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organoiodide
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Primary amine
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginNot Available
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.15ALOGPS
logP3.73ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.27ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.43ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.78 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity126.79 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability49.4 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0f89-4002002900-0d489fed1cb888a2d9d0Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0ac9-0591664310-c9b7aec3184ebb20a2daSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-2566449540-35bb942c7bcbcfe41af7Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00xr-3375497520-9dee3cb0c153e6c6df9eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0059-0001001900-83ff4aafed0b73c6c7b7Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 35V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-6e0a640216afcce0837eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 45V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-9223d3d63e3db43052a7Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 60V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-1e8e674422aa4d820da7Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-0132219000-42259b5a596f74aec76fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0019217000-baafc92556cb18d71b3aSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-bb154453510a75ca822cSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 15V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-f785346765de92765afdSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-0000119000-af7b1e923ec5750514afSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0f8j-1248309000-68eea5695ceb400ea5b0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0029337000-a85b59c3575dc95d36fdSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0003109000-480d647f8d49feeec28cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01si-0000000900-524d052a32c1fe4b904dSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-0000001900-553f6a4045ef2241fd85Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-0009000000-d2431d885a79bb80b7a5Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0000000900-137b5f8f48031bc9aa4fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03fr-0004001900-db1d8cdb93785d786382Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0h9u-7029014300-3bd9620b0c6a8dd20c93Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0000000900-95266ab7e52b7d3cb322Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-1700000900-195c16ab7434b857e712Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-0dba40d354fa6a5575e0Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0000000900-d76aec17d3d890cb64c1Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations and Tissue Locations
  • Plasma
  • Serum
Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueConditionSpeciesReferenceDetails
PlasmaDetected and Quantified0.0768 +/- 0.00193-0.0847+/-0.00399 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified0.0824 +/- 0.00451-0.0862+/-0.00438 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified0.0848 +/- 0.00348-0.0843+/-0.00425 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected and Quantified12.5 +/- 2.8 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected and Quantified10.9 +/- 2.6 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
DrugBank IDDB00451
HMDB IDHMDB0000248
FooDB IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLevothyroxine
Chemspider ID5614
ChEBI ID18332
PubChem Compound IDNot Available
Kegg Compound IDC01829
YMDB IDNot Available
ECMDB IDECMDB24025
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available