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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-07-13 19:42:41 UTC
Update Date2021-04-30 20:57:45 UTC
LmdbLMDB00115
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTaurine
DescriptionTaurine is a sulfur amino acid like methionine, cystine, cysteine and homocysteine. It is a lesser-known amino acid because it is not incorporated into the structural building blocks of protein. Yet taurine is an essential amino acid in pre-term and newborn infants of animals and many other species. Adults can synthesize their own taurine, yet are probably dependent in part on dietary taurine. Taurine is abundant in the brain, heart, breast, gallbladder and kidney and has important roles in health and disease in these organs. Taurine has many diverse biological functions serving as a neurotransmitter in the brain, a stabilizer of cell membranes and a facilitator in the transport of ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Taurine is highly concentrated in animal and fish protein, which are good sources of dietary taurine. It can be synthesized by the body from cysteine when vitamin B6 is present. Deficiency of taurine occurs in premature infants and neonates fed formula milk, and in various disease states. Inborn errors of taurine metabolism have been described. OMIM 168605 , an unusual neuropsychiatric disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion through 3 generations of a family. Symptoms began late in the fifth decade in 6 affected persons and death occurred after 4 to 6 years. The earliest and most prominent symptom was mental depression not responsive to antidepressant drugs or electroconvulsive therapy. Sleep disturbances, exhaustion and marked weight loss were features. Parkinsonism developed later, and respiratory failure occurred terminally. OMIM 145350 describes congestive cardiomyopathy and markedly elevated urinary taurine levels (about 5 times normal). Other family members had late or holosystolic mitral valve prolapse and elevated urinary taurine values (about 2.5 times normal). In 2 with mitral valve prolapse, congestive cardiomyopathy eventually developed while the amounts of urinary taurine doubled. Taurine, after GABA, is the second most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Its inhibitory effect is one source of taurine's anticonvulsant and antianxiety properties. It also lowers glutamic acid in the brain, and preliminary clinical trials suggest taurine may be useful in some forms of epilepsy. Taurine in the brain is usually associated with zinc or manganese. The amino acids alanine and glutamic acid, as well as pantothenic acid, inhibit taurine metabolism while vitamins A and B6, zinc and manganese help build taurine. Cysteine and B6 are the nutrients most directly involved in taurine synthesis. Taurine levels have been found to decrease significantly in many depressed patients. One reason that the findings are not entirely clear is because taurine is often elevated in the blood of epileptics who need it. It is often difficult to distinguish compensatory changes in animal biochemistry from true metabolic or deficiency disease. Low levels of taurine are found in retinitis pigmentosa. Taurine deficiency in experimental animals produces degeneration of light-sensitive cells. Therapeutic applications of taurine to eye disease are likely to be forthcoming. Taurine has many important metabolic roles. Supplements can stimulate prolactin and insulin release. The parathyroid gland makes a peptide hormone called glutataurine (glutamic acid-taurine), which further demonstrates taurine's role in endocrinology. Taurine increases bilirubin and cholesterol excretion in bile, critical to normal gallbladder function. It seems to inhibit the effect of morphine and potentiates the effects of opiate antagonists. Low plasma taurine levels have been found in a variety of conditions, i.e., depression, hypertension, hypothyroidism, gout, institutionalized patients, infertility, obesity, kidney failure and others. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Aminoethanesulfonic acidChEBI
2-Aminoethyl sulfonateChEBI
Aminoethylsulfonic acidChEBI
beta-Aminoethylsulfonic acidChEBI
2-AminoethanesulfonateGenerator
2-AminoethanesulphonateGenerator
2-Aminoethanesulphonic acidGenerator
2-Aminoethyl sulfonic acidGenerator
2-Aminoethyl sulphonateGenerator
2-Aminoethyl sulphonic acidGenerator
AminoethylsulfonateGenerator
AminoethylsulphonateGenerator
Aminoethylsulphonic acidGenerator
b-AminoethylsulfonateGenerator
b-Aminoethylsulfonic acidGenerator
b-AminoethylsulphonateGenerator
b-Aminoethylsulphonic acidGenerator
beta-AminoethylsulfonateGenerator
beta-AminoethylsulphonateGenerator
beta-Aminoethylsulphonic acidGenerator
Β-aminoethylsulfonateGenerator
Β-aminoethylsulfonic acidGenerator
Β-aminoethylsulphonateGenerator
Β-aminoethylsulphonic acidGenerator
1-Aminoethane-2-sulfonateHMDB
1-Aminoethane-2-sulfonic acidHMDB
2-AminoethylsulfonateHMDB
2-Aminoethylsulfonic acidHMDB
2-SulfoethylamineHMDB
Taurine hydrochlorideHMDB
Taurine zinc salt (2:1)HMDB
Taurine, monopotassium saltHMDB
TaufonHMDB
TauphonHMDB
Chemical FormulaC2H7NO3S
Average Molecular Weight125.147
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight125.014663785
IUPAC Name2-aminoethane-1-sulfonic acid
Traditional Nametaurine
CAS Registry Number107-35-7
SMILES
NCCS(O)(=O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H7NO3S/c3-1-2-7(4,5)6/h1-3H2,(H,4,5,6)
InChI KeyXOAAWQZATWQOTB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organosulfonic acids. Organosulfonic acids are compounds containing the sulfonic acid group, which has the general structure RS(=O)2OH (R is not a hydrogen atom).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassOrganic sulfonic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassOrganosulfonic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentOrganosulfonic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkanesulfonic acid
  • Sulfonyl
  • Organosulfonic acid
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginNot Available
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-2.2ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS-0.08ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.34ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.39 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity24.61 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.82 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0032-1901000000-5373a9d32fa1f29b8012Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0032-0901000000-f7cf5a7ef7741fe71454Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9802000000-c315203efd199b1871e7Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0032-1901000000-5373a9d32fa1f29b8012Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0032-0901000000-f7cf5a7ef7741fe71454Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9802000000-c315203efd199b1871e7Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f9t-0902000000-41e2bea3bce85bb00386Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f9t-0902000000-41e2bea3bce85bb00386Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000x-9000000000-fc8f496bf8d00c37dd84Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-57e6677f8d16d2985bfcSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9100000000-6c843965de2368577a54Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9200000000-bc9330a846bf43b4bd3fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0910000000-3db15ccd0e35f4d28cffSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0uk9-9800000000-2b8831b551e784a41008Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-773b190e6818e815f3c9Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-a6f41eee062c4713d181Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0920000000-a558d03e31ae58106185Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-9cd32466db0b0c9c5c55Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-06101a50ac12515e4fd0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-10d63d9e046e843a5fcaSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0890202100-ef2de9b47cafa707f789Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-9300000000-530438ccab9f22503af5Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-ad642e440d924dfd8e20Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0097000000-24cfd722ea30b6a3b22dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0790202100-45d57f0101d4cefbc981Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-9300000000-bd1f04d82f9e675f2303Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-d411fff703670832e445Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0098000000-c86b66ff71cff513520fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-31f44189a2671cf5d2e9Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00e9-6900000000-cc7fe1badfe13959526dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-ae6465f92e91cfad7276Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-af0ea33a51fe79abee00Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-27d6c7ae55f73bb21b3cSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-2900000000-a48be30a953f106419c0Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0036-9000000000-a96a1a8b53b1b556f6caSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations and Tissue Locations
  • Bile acid
  • Brain
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Follicular Fluid
  • Jejunum
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Milk
  • Plasma
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Serum
  • Urine
Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueConditionSpeciesReferenceDetails
Bile acidDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
BrainDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableOvine details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableOvine details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableEquine
    • E. E. Escalona, J...
details
Follicular FluidDetected and Quantified410 +/- 10-450+/-80 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
Follicular FluidDetected and Quantified73 +/- 2-96+/-1 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
JejunumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
KidneyDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
LiverDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
LungDetected and Quantified2.6+/-0.15 umol/gNot AvailablePorcine details
MilkDetected and Quantified327-621 uMNot AvailableBovine details
PlasmaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableEquine
    • E. E. Escalona, J...
details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified124 +/- 14-140+/-5 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified155 +/- 13-135+/-14 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified179 +/- 17-127+/-23 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified171.02 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified189.09 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified189.58 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified195.47 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified1.07 +/- 0.007 uMNot AvailableBovine
    • Saleem F, Bouatra...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified56.3111 +/- 17.9919 uM
Normal
Ovine
    • Goldansaz et al.,...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified61.0962 +/- 24.2654 uM
Normal
Ovine
    • Goldansaz et al.,...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified69.4615 +/- 33.5921 uM
Normal
Ovine
    • Goldansaz et al.,...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified63.1 uMNot AvailablePorcine
    • Barbara U. Metzle...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified63.1 uMNot AvailablePorcine
    • Barbara U. Metzle...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified74.3 uMNot AvailablePorcine
    • Barbara U. Metzle...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified77.3 uMNot AvailablePorcine
    • Barbara U. Metzle...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified65.548 +/- 20.9162 uM
Normal
Ovine
    • Goldansaz et al.,...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified162.14 +/- 63.78 uMNot AvailableOvine
    • Candidate serum m...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified67.2667 +/- 28.5966 uM
Normal
Ovine
    • Goldansaz et al.,...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified74.728 +/- 29.8539 uM
Normal
Ovine
    • Goldansaz et al.,...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified1.358 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected and Quantified1.438 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected and Quantified1.278 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected and Quantified2.0776 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected and Quantified61.9458 +/- 21.5236 uM
Normal
Ovine
    • Goldansaz et al.,...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified0.00520 +/- 0.000703 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected and Quantified79.9 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected and Quantified63.825 +/- 26.7001 uM
Normal
Ovine
    • Goldansaz et al.,...
details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
SerumDetected and Quantified71.104 +/- 30.4567 uM
Normal
Ovine
    • Goldansaz et al.,...
details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected and Quantified180 +/- 10 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected and Quantified61.036 +/- 22.1659 uM
Normal
Ovine
    • Goldansaz et al.,...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified64.5115 +/- 19.8522 uM
Normal
Ovine
    • Goldansaz et al.,...
details
SerumDetected and Quantified53.1962 +/- 21.7813 uM
Normal
Ovine
    • Goldansaz et al.,...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableEquine
    • E. E. Escalona, J...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
DrugBank IDDB01956
HMDB IDHMDB0000251
FooDB IDFDB003191
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00048188
BiGG ID34373
BioCyc IDTAURINE
METLIN ID31
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTaurine
Chemspider ID1091
ChEBI ID15891
PubChem Compound ID1123
Kegg Compound IDC00245
YMDB IDYMDB00772
ECMDB IDECMDB00251
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available