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Record Information
Creation Date2016-07-13 19:40:37 UTC
Update Date2016-07-19 23:17:49 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAmmonia
DescriptionAmmonia is a colorless alkaline gas with a characteristic sharp smell. Ammonia is one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere. It is an irritant with a characteristic pungent odor, which is widely used in industry. Inasmuch as ammonia is highly soluble in water and, upon inhalation, is deposited in the upper airways, occupational exposures to ammonia have commonly been associated with sinusitis, upper airway irritation, and eye irritation. Acute exposures to high levels of ammonia have also been associated with diseases of the lower airways and interstitial lung. Ammonia has been shown to be a neurotoxin that predominantly affects astrocytes. Disturbed mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, factors implicated in the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition, appear to be involved in the mechanism of ammonia neurotoxicity. Ammonia is formed in nearly all tissues and organs of the vertebrate organism; it is the most common endogenous neurotoxic compounds. Ammonia can affect the glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal systems, the two prevailing neuronal systems of the cortical structures. Ammonia is well recognized to be central in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and has been of importance to generations dating back to the early Egyptians. The gut produces ammonia which is metabolized in the liver and almost all organ systems are involved in ammonia metabolism. Colonic bacteria produce ammonia by splitting urea and other amino acids, however this does not explain hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. The alternative explanation is that hyperammonemia is the result of intestinal breakdown of amino acids, especially glutamine. The intestines have significant glutaminase activity, predominantly located in the enterocytes. On the other hand, this organ has only a little glutamine synthetase activity, making it a major glutamine-consuming organ. In addition to the intestine, the kidney is an important source of blood ammonia in patients with liver disease. Ammonia is also taken up by the muscle and brain in hepatic coma, and there is confirmation that ammonia is metabolized in muscle. The excessive formation of ammonia in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients has been demonstrated, and it has been shown that some Alzheimer's disease patients exhibit elevated blood ammonia concentrations. Ammonia is the most important natural modulator of lysosomal protein processing: there is evidence for the involvement of aberrant lysosomal processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) in the formation of amyloid deposits. Inflammatory processes and activation of microglia are widely believed to be implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Ammonia is able to affect the characteristic functions of microglia, such as endocytosis, and cytokine production. Based on these facts, an ammonia-based hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease has been suggested. (PMID: 17006913 , 16167195 , 15377862 , 15369278 , 12020619 ).
Spirit OF hartshornChEBI
Ammonia anhydrousHMDB
Ammonia inhalantHMDB
Ammonia solution strongHMDB
Ammonia waterHMDB
Liquid ammoniaHMDB
Ammonia (CONC 20% or greater)HMDB
Ammonia gasHMDB
Ammonia solutionHMDB
Ammonia solution strong (NF)HMDB
Ammonia water (JP15)HMDB
Ammoniacum gummiHMDB
Ammoniak kconzentrierterHMDB
Ammonium ionHMDB
Anhydrous ammoniaHMDB
Aromatic ammonia vaporoleHMDB
Primaeres aminHMDB
Sekundaeres aminHMDB
Tertiaeres aminHMDB
Chemical FormulaH3N
Average Molecular Weight17.0305
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight17.026549101
IUPAC Nameammonia
Traditional Nameammonia
CAS Registry Number7664-41-7
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
  • Homogeneous other non metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginNot Available
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.86ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area13.59 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity15.51 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.99 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-92ab2d6b6fd9cfb23ac7Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-88ae09421d46f7dea1c5Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-88ae09421d46f7dea1c5Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-88ae09421d46f7dea1c5Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-5e750288766bc8c562ffSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-5e750288766bc8c562ffSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-5e750288766bc8c562ffSpectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-014i-9000000000-e0a6e51ead158714099bSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations and Tissue Locations
  • Plasma
PlasmaDetected and Quantified102 +/- 12-96.4+/-7.4 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified85.3 +/- 9.2-82.9+/-6.9 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified87.7 +/- 5.3-81.8+/-9.9 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified97.83 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified100.74 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified129.85 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
PlasmaDetected and Quantified135.75 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
DrugBank IDDBMET01482
FooDB IDFDB003908
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00007267
BiGG IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAmmonia
Chemspider ID217
ChEBI ID16134
PubChem Compound ID222
Kegg Compound IDC00014
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Albrecht J, Norenberg MD: Glutamine: a Trojan horse in ammonia neurotoxicity. Hepatology. 2006 Oct;44(4):788-94. [17006913 ]
  2. Shawcross DL, Olde Damink SW, Butterworth RF, Jalan R: Ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy: the more things change, the more they remain the same. Metab Brain Dis. 2005 Sep;20(3):169-79. [16167195 ]
  3. Norenberg MD, Rama Rao KV, Jayakumar AR: Ammonia neurotoxicity and the mitochondrial permeability transition. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2004 Aug;36(4):303-7. [15377862 ]
  4. Brautbar N, Wu MP, Richter ED: Chronic ammonia inhalation and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Sep;58(9):592-6. [15369278 ]
  5. Seiler N: Ammonia and Alzheimer's disease. Neurochem Int. 2002 Aug-Sep;41(2-3):189-207. [12020619 ]