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Record Information
Creation Date2016-07-13 19:40:26 UTC
Update Date2016-07-20 21:03:00 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTaurocholic acid
DescriptionTaurocholic acid is a bile acid and is the product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depends only on presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. Bile acids have potent toxic properties (e.g., membrane disruption) and there are a plethora of mechanisms to limit their accumulation in blood and tissues. (PMID: 11316487 , 16037564 , 12576301 , 11907135 ) Taurocholic acid, as with all bile acids, acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic (a bile purging agent). Hydrolysis of taurocholic acid yields taurine, a nonessential amino acid. Taurocholic acid is one of the main components of urinary nonsulfated bile acids in biliary atresia. Raised levels of the bile acid taurocholate in the fetal serum in obstetric cholestasis may result in the development of a fetal dysrhythmia and in sudden intra-uterine death. (PMID: 3944741 , 11256973 ).
3a,7a,12a-Trihydroxy-5b-cholanic acid-24-taurineHMDB
Cholaic acidHMDB
Cholic acid taurine conjugateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC26H45NO7S
Average Molecular Weight515.703
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight515.291673489
IUPAC Name2-{4-[(5R,7S,9R,16S)-5,9,16-trihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadecan-14-yl]pentanamido}ethane-1-sulfonic acid
Traditional Name2-{4-[(5R,7S,9R,16S)-5,9,16-trihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadecan-14-yl]pentanamido}ethanesulfonic acid
CAS Registry Number81-24-3
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as taurinated bile acids and derivatives. These are bile acid derivatives containing a taurine conjugated to the bile acid moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassBile acids, alcohols and derivatives
Direct ParentTaurinated bile acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Taurinated bile acid
  • Trihydroxy bile acid, alcohol, or derivatives
  • Hydroxy bile acid, alcohol, or derivatives
  • 3-hydroxysteroid
  • 12-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid
  • 7-hydroxysteroid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty amide
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Alkanesulfonic acid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Organic sulfonic acid or derivatives
  • Organosulfonic acid or derivatives
  • Organosulfonic acid
  • Sulfonyl
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Polyol
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
StatusDetected but not Quantified
OriginNot Available
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.1ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.28ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area144.16 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity132.19 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability56.72 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0g4j-0304910000-abaac57e1701023a2764View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0f6y-1110149000-f02b3a22c512c41f7c03View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-02vj-0000930000-3da4a61de557ceafd64eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03dr-0146900000-496ef2d89c5640e6a0e6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-1900000000-1d3a42bca59d0e7c917dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000t-0201910000-4c0d194625e9b7b9a813View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a7j-1904700000-038a14191a9033d2c5e1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-002f-7809600000-8badd8a2f0f913acbe36View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-3000690000-34b9a4282f7ecedef15dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01x1-8604940000-a1bb7aad15e0f52987fbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001l-9201100000-561bc85372cd1f2da0f9View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations and Tissue Locations
  • Plasma
PlasmaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine
    • Sergio Polakof, D...
DrugBank IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB012335
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
BiGG ID45150
BioCyc IDCPD-3743
Wikipedia LinkTaurocholic acid
Chemspider ID389467
ChEBI ID28865
PubChem Compound ID440567
Kegg Compound IDC05122
YMDB IDNot Available
ECMDB IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. St-Pierre MV, Kullak-Ublick GA, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Transport of bile acids in hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. J Exp Biol. 2001 May;204(Pt 10):1673-86. [11316487 ]
  2. Claudel T, Staels B, Kuipers F: The Farnesoid X receptor: a molecular link between bile acid and lipid and glucose metabolism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Oct;25(10):2020-30. Epub 2005 Jul 21. [16037564 ]
  3. Chiang JY: Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: III. Bile acids and nuclear receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Mar;284(3):G349-56. [12576301 ]
  4. Davis RA, Miyake JH, Hui TY, Spann NJ: Regulation of cholesterol-7alpha-hydroxylase: BAREly missing a SHP. J Lipid Res. 2002 Apr;43(4):533-43. [11907135 ]
  5. Nittono H, Obinata K, Nakatsu N, Watanabe T, Niijima S, Sasaki H, Arisaka O, Kato H, Yabuta K, Miyano T: Sulfated and nonsulfated bile acids in urine of patients with biliary atresia: analysis of bile acids by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1986 Jan;5(1):23-9. [3944741 ]
  6. Williamson C, Gorelik J, Eaton BM, Lab M, de Swiet M, Korchev Y: The bile acid taurocholate impairs rat cardiomyocyte function: a proposed mechanism for intra-uterine fetal death in obstetric cholestasis. Clin Sci (Lond). 2001 Apr;100(4):363-9. [11256973 ]