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Record Information
Creation Date2016-07-13 19:49:04 UTC
Update Date2020-03-13 18:12:42 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameVanadium
DescriptionVanadium is a steel-grey, corrosion-resistant metal, which exists in oxidation states ranging from -1 to +5. Metallic vanadium does not occur in nature, and the most common valence states are +3, +4, and +5. The pentavalent form (VO3-) predominates in extracellular body fluids whereas the quadrivalent form (VO+2) is the most common intracellular form. Because of its hardness and its ability to form alloys, vanadium (i.e., ferrovanadium) is a common component of hard steel alloys used in machines and tools. Although most foods contain low concentrations of vanadium (< 1 ng/g), food is the major source of exposure to vanadium for the general population. High air concentrations of vanadium occur in the occupation setting during boiler-cleaning operations as a result of the presence of vanadium oxides in the dust. The lungs absorb soluble vanadium compounds (V2O5) well, but the absorption of vanadium salts from the gastrointestinal tract is poor. The excretion of vanadium by the kidneys is rapid with a biological half-life of 20-40 hours in the urine. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Vanadium is probably an essential trace element, but a vanadium-deficiency disease has not been identified in animals. The estimated daily intake of the US population ranges from 10-60 micrograms V. Vanadyl sulfate is a common supplement used to enhance weight training in athletes at doses up to 60 mg/d. In vitro and animal studies indicate that vanadate and other vanadium compounds increase glucose transport activity and improve glucose metabolism. In general, the toxicity of vanadium compounds is low. Pentavalent compounds are the most toxic and the toxicity of vanadium compounds usually increases as the valence increases. Most of the toxic effects of vanadium compounds result from local irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract rather than systemic toxicity. The only clearly documented effect of exposure to vanadium dust is upper respiratory tract irritation characterized by rhinitis, wheezing, nasal hemorrhage, conjunctivitis, cough, sore throat, and chest pain. Case studies have described the onset of asthma after heavy exposure to vanadium compounds, but clinical studies to date have not detected an increased prevalence of asthma in workers exposed to vanadium. Vanadium is a trace element present in practically all cells in plants and animals. It exerts interesting actions in living systems. At pharmacological doses, vanadium compounds display relevant biological actions such as mimicking insulin and growth factors as well as having osteogenic activity. Some vanadium compounds also show antitumoral properties. The importance of vanadium in bone arises from the studies developed to establish the essentiality of this element in animals and animals. Bone tissue, where the element seems to play an important role, accumulates great amounts of vanadium. Among several metals, vanadium has emerged as an extremely potent agent with insulin-like properties. These insulin-like properties have been demonstrated in isolated cells, tissues, different animal models of type I and type II diabetes as well as a limited number of animal subjects. Vanadium treatment has been found to improve abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and of gene expression in rodent models of diabetes. In isolated cells, it enhances glucose transport, glycogen and lipid synthesis, and inhibits gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. The molecular mechanism responsible for the insulin-like effects of vanadium compounds have been shown to involve the activation of several key components of insulin-signaling pathways that include the mitogen-activated-protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38MAPK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/protein kinase B (PKB). (PMID: 16998531 , 16456236 , 10382561 )
Vanadium, ion(3+)ChEBI
Chemical FormulaV
Average Molecular Weight50.9415
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight50.943963675
IUPAC Namevanadium(3+) ion
Traditional Namevanadium(3+) ion
CAS Registry Number7440-62-2
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
  • Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginNot Available
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-9000000000-04cac363fba8baca3d60Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-9000000000-04cac363fba8baca3d60Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-9000000000-04cac363fba8baca3d60Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-f32cb636023329dd9052Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-f32cb636023329dd9052Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-f32cb636023329dd9052Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations and Tissue Locations
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Serum
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified0.042 +/- 0.01 uMNot AvailableBovine
    • Saleem F, Bouatra...
SerumDetected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.01 uMNot AvailableOvine
    • Candidate serum m...
DrugBank IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkVanadium
Chemspider ID10659555
ChEBI ID49948
PubChem Compound IDNot Available
Kegg Compound IDC06267
YMDB IDNot Available
ECMDB IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Barrio DA, Etcheverry SB: Vanadium and bone development: putative signaling pathways. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Jul;84(7):677-86. [16998531 ]
  2. Mehdi MZ, Pandey SK, Theberge JF, Srivastava AK: Insulin signal mimicry as a mechanism for the insulin-like effects of vanadium. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2006;44(1):73-81. [16456236 ]
  3. Barceloux DG: Vanadium. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999;37(2):265-78. [10382561 ]