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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-07-13 19:41:24 UTC
Update Date2016-07-20 20:55:09 UTC
LmdbLMDB00056
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGuanine
DescriptionGuanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. Guanine is a derivative of purine, consisting of a fused pyrimidine-imidazole ring system with conjugated double bonds. Being unsaturated, the bicyclic molecule is planar. The guanine nucleoside is called guanosine. The first isolation of guanine was reported in 1844 from the excreta of sea birds, known as guano, which was used as a source of fertilizer. High affinity binding of guanine nucleotides and the ability to hydrolyze bound GTP to GDP are characteristics of an extended family of intracellular proteins. Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins may be involved in the activation of phospholipases C and A2 by hormones and other ligands. The binding of hormones to receptors that activate phospholipase C is decreased by guanine nucleotides and these hormones also stimulate a high-affinity GTPase activity in cell membranes. Effects of hormones on phospholipase C activity in cell-free preparations are dependent on the presence of guanine nucleotides. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT, EC 2.4.2.8) is a purine salvage enzyme that catalyses the conversion of hypoxanthine and guanine to their respective mononucleotides. Partial deficiency of this enzyme can result in the overproduction of uric acid leading to a severe form of gout, whilst a virtual absence of HPRT activity causes the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome which is characterised by hyperuricaemia, mental retardation, choreoathetosis and compulsive self-mutilation. Peroxynitrite induces DNA base damage predominantly at guanine (G) and 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) nucleobases via oxidation reactions. G and 8-oxoG are the most reactive bases toward Peroxynitrite and possibly the major contributors to peroxynitrite-derived genotoxic and mutagenic lesions. The neutral G radical, reacts with NO2 to yield 8-nitroguanine and 5-nitro-4-guanidinohydantoin. (PMID: 16352449 , 2435586 , 2838362 , 1487231 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Amino-6-hydroxypurineChEBI
2-Amino-6-oxopurineChEBI
GChEBI
GuaChEBI
2-Amino-1,7-dihydro-6H-purin-6-oneHMDB
2-Amino-1,9-dihydro-6H-purin-6-oneHMDB
2-Amino-1,9-dihydro-purin-6-oneHMDB
2-Amino-3,7-dihydro-6H-purin-6-oneHMDB
2-Amino-6-hydroxy-1H-purineHMDB
2-Amino-6-purinolHMDB
2-Amino-hypoxanthineHMDB
2-AminohypoxanthineHMDB
6-Hydroxy-2-aminopurineHMDB
C.I. natural white 1HMDB
CI natural white 1HMDB
Dew pearlHMDB
GuaninHMDB
Guanine enolHMDB
GUNHMDB
MearlmaidHMDB
Mearlmaid aaHMDB
Natural pearl essenceHMDB
Natural white 1HMDB
NaturonHMDB
PathocidinHMDB
Pearl essenceHMDB
Stella polarisHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H5N5O
Average Molecular Weight151.1261
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight151.049409807
IUPAC Name2-amino-6,7-dihydro-3H-purin-6-one
Traditional Name2-aminohypoxanthine
CAS Registry Number73-40-5
SMILES
NC1=NC(=O)C2=C(N1)N=CN2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H5N5O/c6-5-9-3-2(4(11)10-5)7-1-8-3/h1H,(H4,6,7,8,9,10,11)
InChI KeyUYTPUPDQBNUYGX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purines and purine derivatives. These are aromatic heterocyclic compounds containing a purine moiety, which is formed a pyrimidine-ring ring fused to an imidazole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentPurines and purine derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Purine
  • Hydroxypyrimidine
  • Pyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected but not Quantified
OriginNot Available
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.92ALOGPS
logP-0.59ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.95ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.22ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area96.16 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity38.9 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.34 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-1938000000-e15e09f2007f35659bb9Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-3739000000-66a080b08ba9b9f82e20Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-5900000000-0a63148e3a8dc8d026dfSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-1938000000-e15e09f2007f35659bb9Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-3739000000-66a080b08ba9b9f82e20Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-2928000000-073bf70794fe99ce737fSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-000t-2790000000-77e6b5b71c9ff6ad2b23Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0ff0-5900000000-f103c75addeafe7ac6f0Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0901000000-2864e73c83444d566e9aSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-2900000000-4229d3d01623054b4cebSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-d5ae84fefadd84f988b4Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-7d48b2e8db6967e98407Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0uxr-0900000000-67a7784963ec75cecaa0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-4569516f23d8a712b434Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d928cac1226f19b8edc3Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-34059351f2cbd94a8accSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udj-0903100000-deb9c022884d7c98782eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-45d9db80ce4657ef1773Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-1900000000-86b7ee5755cbb8236f5bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-ba534850b64f39d81fa0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-422f992621ab9626d1b2Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0f89-0900000000-64e388178db73f06cb20Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-f0a95c55947ca990359cSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-45d9db80ce4657ef1773Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-ba534850b64f39d81fa0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0f89-0900000000-64e388178db73f06cb20Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-c2e1c1e8841cc741dac1Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-e74c005384d71f4787e5Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-de4a4c4479ea93d742b5Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a5i-9800000000-da506476184e5c2313a4Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-03d17084c3cb072c0237Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-2900000000-c372e3ba919cba4f561fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00kf-9200000000-8ac435f998deda6437e1Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0udi-8900000000-699c510cfaf838ab1922Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations and Tissue Locations
  • Urine
Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueConditionSpeciesReferenceDetails
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
DrugBank IDDB02377
HMDB IDHMDB0000132
FooDB IDFDB004222
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00001501
BiGG ID34363
BioCyc IDGUANINE
METLIN ID315
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGuanine
Chemspider ID744
ChEBI ID16235
PubChem Compound ID764
Kegg Compound IDC00242
YMDB IDYMDB00698
ECMDB IDECMDB00132
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Niles JC, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR: Peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration products of guanine and 8-oxoguanine: structures and mechanisms of product formation. Nitric Oxide. 2006 Mar;14(2):109-21. Epub 2005 Dec 13. [16352449 ]
  2. Spiegel AM: Signal transduction by guanine nucleotide binding proteins. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1987 Jan;49(1):1-16. [2435586 ]
  3. Fain JN, Wallace MA, Wojcikiewicz RJ: Evidence for involvement of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in the activation of phospholipases by hormones. FASEB J. 1988 Jul;2(10):2569-74. [2838362 ]
  4. Sculley DG, Dawson PA, Emmerson BT, Gordon RB: A review of the molecular basis of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency. Hum Genet. 1992 Nov;90(3):195-207. [1487231 ]