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Record Information
Creation Date2016-07-13 19:22:08 UTC
Update Date2016-07-20 20:48:18 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name2-Hydroxybutyric acid
Description2-Hydroxybutyric acid (alpha-hydroxybutyrate) is an organic acid derived from alpha-ketobutyrate. Alpha-ketobutyrate is produced by amino acid catabolism (threonine and methionine) and glutathione anabolism (cysteine formation pathway) and is metabolized to propionyl-CoA and carbon dioxide (PMID: 20526369 ). 2-Hydroxybutyric acid is formed as a by-product during the formation of Alpha-ketobutyrate via a reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or alphañhydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (alphañHBDH). Alpha-hydroxybutyric acid is primarily produced in mammalian hepatic tissues that catabolize L-threonine or synthesize glutathione. Oxidative stress or detoxification of xenobiotics in the liver can dramatically increase the rate of hepatic glutathione synthesis. Under such metabolic stress conditions, supplies of L-cysteine for glutathione synthesis become limiting, so homocysteine is diverted from the transmethylation pathway (which forms methionine) into the transsulfuration pathway (which forms cystathionine). 2-Hydroxybutyrate is released as a byproduct when cystathionine is cleaved to cysteine that is incorporated into glutathione. Chronic shifts in the rate of glutathione synthesis may be reflected by urinary excretion of 2-hydroxybutyrate. 2-hydroxybutyrate is an early marker for both insulin resistance and impaired glucose regulation that appears to arise due to increased lipid oxidation and oxidative stress (PMID: 20526369 ). 2-Hydroxybutyric acid is often found in the urine of patients suffering from lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis. 2-Hydroxybutyric acid generally appears at high concentrations in situations related to deficient energy metabolism (e.g., birth asphyxia) and also in inherited metabolic diseases affecting the central nervous system during neonatal development, such as "cerebral" lactic acidosis, glutaric aciduria type II, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3) deficiency, and propionic acidemia. More recently it has been noted that elevated levels of alpha-hydroxybutyrate in the plasma is a good marker for early stage type II diabetes (PMID:19166731 ). It was concluded from studies done in the mid 1970's that an increased NADH2/NAD ratio was the most important factor for the production of 2-hydorxybutyric acid (PMID:168632 ).
2-Hydroxybutanoic acidChEBI
alpha-Hydroxybutanoic acidChEBI
alpha-Hydroxybutyric acidChEBI
a-Hydroxybutanoic acidGenerator
α-hydroxybutanoic acidGenerator
a-Hydroxybutyric acidGenerator
α-hydroxybutyric acidGenerator
(RS)-2-Hydroxybutyric acidHMDB
2-Hydroxy-butanoic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxy-DL-butyric acidHMDB
2-Hydroxy-N-butyric acidHMDB
a-Hydroxy-N-butyric acidHMDB
alpha-Hydroxy-N-butyric acidHMDB
DL-2-Hydroxybutanoic acidHMDB
DL-a-Hydroxybutyric acidHMDB
DL-alpha-Hydroxybutyric acidHMDB
2-Hydroxybutyric acid, (R)-isomerMeSH
2-Hydroxybutyric acid, monosodium saltMeSH
2-Hydroxybutyric acid, (+-)-isomerMeSH
2-Hydroxybutyric acid, monosodium salt, (+-)-isomerMeSH
Chemical FormulaC4H8O3
Average Molecular Weight104.1045
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight104.047344122
IUPAC Name2-hydroxybutanoic acid
Traditional Nameα-hydroxybutyric acid
CAS Registry Number600-15-7
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassHydroxy acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAlpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Fatty acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginNot Available
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.99ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity23.36 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.98 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-001j-0900000000-44dd1bf8072e5731bac4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00e9-9700000000-93eba027d5343e3d6ce1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-001i-1910000000-3bc9898b26df33cad244View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0a6u-9000000000-0d95c1179b1b00650601View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-4d935da8e593ec61fd96View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-001j-0900000000-44dd1bf8072e5731bac4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-00e9-9700000000-93eba027d5343e3d6ce1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-001i-1910000000-3bc9898b26df33cad244View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-00v0-9520000000-598a2bd61c303327bd8fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0zfr-9600000000-f688c3e6fdeb5f0270c5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0a4j-9200000000-e3b371c29b9ebed3199bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0zfs-9700000000-bccfada2c97e04d34417View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-4d935da8e593ec61fd96View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativesplash10-0udi-2900000000-3c7915ea71886873f024View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-0zfr-7900000000-d91c840306a06d4ea513View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9500000000-8f04a5941997004743d2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9100000000-cef703dc6f30af7834a8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-1e7e6e8a895c4c1d51dbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-4900000000-d0907a0b08e0d829cecaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0pb9-9200000000-d826b54f814ac185b4dbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-3727124ed618f038b514View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations and Tissue Locations
  • Colostrum
  • Meat
  • Milk
  • Plasma
  • Serum
  • Urine
ColostrumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
MeatDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine
    • S. F. Graham, T. ...
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
PlasmaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableEquine
    • E. E. Escalona, J...
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected and Quantified0.0100 +/- 0.000845 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected and Quantified0.00739 +/- 0.000346 uMNot AvailablePorcine details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
DrugBank IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB021867
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
BiGG ID47130
BioCyc IDCPD-3564
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia Link2-Hydroxybutyric_acid
Chemspider ID10792
ChEBI ID1148
PubChem Compound ID11266
Kegg Compound IDC05984
YMDB IDNot Available
ECMDB IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Gall WE, Beebe K, Lawton KA, Adam KP, Mitchell MW, Nakhle PJ, Ryals JA, Milburn MV, Nannipieri M, Camastra S, Natali A, Ferrannini E: alpha-hydroxybutyrate is an early biomarker of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in a nondiabetic population. PLoS One. 2010 May 28;5(5):e10883. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010883. [20526369 ]
  2. Li X, Xu Z, Lu X, Yang X, Yin P, Kong H, Yu Y, Xu G: Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for metabonomics: Biomarker discovery for diabetes mellitus. Anal Chim Acta. 2009 Feb 9;633(2):257-62. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.11.058. Epub 2008 Dec 3. [19166731 ]
  3. Landaas S, Pettersen JE: Clinical conditions associated with urinary excretion of 2-hydroxybutyric acid. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1975 May;35(3):259-66. [168632 ]