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Record Information
Version1.0
Creation Date2016-07-13 19:41:30 UTC
Update Date2016-07-20 20:49:22 UTC
LmdbLMDB00060
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameFormic acid
DescriptionFormic acid is the simplest carboxylic acid. Formate is an intermediate in normal metabolism. It takes part in the metabolism of one-carbon compounds and its carbon may appear in methyl groups undergoing transmethylation. It is eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. Formate is typically produced as a byproduct in the production of acetate. It is responsible for both metabolic acidosis and disrupting mitochondrial electron transport and energy production by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase activity, the terminal electron acceptor of the electron transport chain. Cell death from cytochrome oxidase inhibition by formate is believed to result partly from depletion of ATP, reducing energy concentrations so that essential cell functions cannot be maintained. Furthermore, inhibition of cytochrome oxidase by formate may also cause cell death by increased production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) secondary to the blockade of the electron transport chain. In nature, formic acid is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order Hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Acide formiqueChEBI
AmeisensaeureChEBI
Aminic acidChEBI
BilorinChEBI
Formylic acidChEBI
H-COOHChEBI
HCO2HChEBI
HCOOHChEBI
Hydrogen carboxylic acidChEBI
Methanoic acidChEBI
Methoic acidChEBI
AminateGenerator
FormylateGenerator
Hydrogen carboxylateGenerator
MethanoateGenerator
MethoateGenerator
FormateGenerator
Add-FHMDB
AmeisensaureHMDB
Collo-bueglattHMDB
Collo-didaxHMDB
FormiraHMDB
FormisotonHMDB
Methanoic acid monomerHMDB
MyrmicylHMDB
Sodium formateHMDB
SybestHMDB
Wonderbond hardener m 600lHMDB
Calcium formateHMDB
Cobalt(II) formate dihydrateHMDB
Formic acid, aluminum saltHMDB
Formic acid, copper saltHMDB
Formic acid, cromium (+3) saltHMDB
Lithium formateHMDB
Ammonium formateHMDB
Formic acid, ammonium (4:1) saltHMDB
Formic acid, ammonium saltHMDB
Formic acid, calcium saltHMDB
Formic acid, copper (+2) saltHMDB
Formic acid, lead (+2) saltHMDB
Formic acid, lead saltHMDB
Formic acid, nickel saltHMDB
Formic acid, potassium saltHMDB
Formic acid, strontium saltHMDB
MafusolHMDB
Ammonium tetraformateHMDB
Formic acid, 14C-labeledHMDB
Formic acid, cobalt (+2) saltHMDB
Formic acid, copper, ammonium saltHMDB
Formic acid, sodium saltHMDB
Formic acid, sodium salt, 14C-labeledHMDB
Formic acid, ammonium (2:1) saltHMDB
Formic acid, cadmium saltHMDB
Formic acid, cesium saltHMDB
Formic acid, copper, nickel saltHMDB
Formic acid, cromium (+3), sodium (4:1:1) saltHMDB
Formic acid, lithium saltHMDB
Formic acid, magnesium saltHMDB
Formic acid, nickel (+2) saltHMDB
Formic acid, rubidium saltHMDB
Formic acid, sodium salt, 13C-labeledHMDB
Formic acid, thallium (+1) saltHMDB
Formic acid, zinc saltHMDB
Nickel formate dihydrateHMDB
Aluminum formateHMDB
Potassium formateHMDB
Strontium formateHMDB
Lead formateHMDB
Nickel formateHMDB
Chromic formateHMDB
Cobaltous formateHMDB
Cupric formateHMDB
Magnesium formateHMDB
Zinc formateHMDB
Chemical FormulaCH2O2
Average Molecular Weight46.0254
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight46.005479308
IUPAC Nameformic acid
Traditional Nameformic acid
CAS Registry Number64-18-6
SMILES
OC=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CH2O2/c2-1-3/h1H,(H,2,3)
InChI KeyBDAGIHXWWSANSR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids are compounds containing a carboxylic acid group with the formula -C(=O)OH.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic acids
Direct ParentCarboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginNot Available
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.47ALOGPS
logP-0.27ChemAxon
logS1.02ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.27ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity8.15 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability3.37 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-5d27bb312e37a2c8994fView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fmi-9200000000-2a89ba98485194acd75aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-092f816e62c8d2f5d56eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-092f816e62c8d2f5d56eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-092f816e62c8d2f5d56eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004j-9000000000-2e63b0c1e2e417b0d747View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations and Tissue Locations
  • Feces
  • Kidney perfusate
  • Milk
  • Plasma
  • Ruminal Fluid
  • Serum
  • Urine
Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueConditionSpeciesReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableEquine
    • E. E. Escalona, J...
details
Kidney perfusateDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
PlasmaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableEquine
    • E. E. Escalona, J...
details
PlasmaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableOvine details
PlasmaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
PlasmaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified258 uMNot AvailableBovine
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified320 uMNot AvailableBovine
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified321 uMNot AvailableBovine
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified337 uMNot AvailableBovine
    • Burim NA, Qendrim...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified158.8 uMNot AvailableBovine details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified159.7 uMNot AvailableBovine details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified162.9 uMNot AvailableBovine details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified275.7 uMNot AvailableBovine details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified160 +/- 45 uMNot AvailableBovine
    • Saleem F, Bouatra...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified160 +/- 46 uMNot AvailableBovine
    • Saleem F, Bouatra...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified160 +/- 46 uMNot AvailableBovine
    • Saleem F, Bouatra...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified163 +/- 33 uMNot AvailableBovine
    • Saleem F, Bouatra...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified276 +/- 104 uMNot AvailableBovine
    • Saleem F, Bouatra...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified329 +/- 12 uMNot AvailableBovine
    • Saleem F, Bouatra...
details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified105 +/- 28 uMNot AvailableBovine details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified154 +/- 16 uMNot AvailableBovine details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified75.6 +/- 15 uMNot AvailableBovine details
Ruminal FluidDetected and Quantified556 +/- 99 uMNot AvailableCaprine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
SerumDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableEquine
    • E. E. Escalona, J...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableBovine details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailablePorcine details
DrugBank IDDB01942
HMDB IDHMDB0000142
FooDB IDFDB012804
Phenol Explorer IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00001182
BiGG ID33693
BioCyc IDFORMATE
METLIN ID3202
PDB IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkFormic_acid
Chemspider ID278
ChEBI ID30751
PubChem Compound ID284
Kegg Compound IDC00058
YMDB IDYMDB00385
ECMDB IDECMDB00142
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available